Adaptation of a child in kindergarten: problems and solutions
Children grow incredibly fast. And now you need to return to the service from maternity leave, and the baby to get used to a different situation in kindergarten. The child’s lifestyle will radically change from the moment he enters the garden: strict daily routine, absence of family members nearby, constant communication with his peers, other behavioral requirements and a lot of new things. Unusual conditions fall on the baby, like "snow on the head", creating a stressful situation for him.
Successful adaptation is a problem not only for garden personnel, but also for families. The preschooler’s mom and dad are going through and this is quite understandable. Parents are tormented by many questions: How soon will their baby get used to a foreign environment? How to help your child in this difficult period? What problems may arise and how to solve them? What mistakes are made and how to avoid them?
The problem of adaptation and its types
Adaptation is the adaptation or habituation of a baby to foreign conditions in an unusual environment. The result of adaptation is positive or negative. The first leads to the acceptance of requirements and the manifestation of the desired line of conduct. The second - to stress and internal conflict.
The first visits to the kindergarten are often accompanied by stress and neurotic reactions. A child is naughty, afraid, can refuse to eat and even get sick. Psychologists distinguish three stages of adaptation, which are characterized by the severity of habituation to an unusual environment:
Easy adaptation level. The baby gets used to the new conditions and requirements for two weeks. At the same time, he actively behaves in the peer group, he is sick with the usual frequency and gains weight.
The average level of adaptation. The process lasts about a month. The kid loses a little weight, his behavior has signs of emotional stress. Perhaps a mild disease lasting no more than a week.
Heavy level of adaptation. The term of getting used to the new environment is sometimes delayed up to six months. The kid gets sick more often than usual, does not master new skills or loses the existing ones.The child is sometimes observed physiological and emotional exhaustion.
Parents face many problems. The first concerns the age for starting a visit to the toddler garden. Researchers are of the opinion that the start of visits to kindergarten should be in 3 years. However, at this age, despite the fact that the child has more skills and can talk to him, the features and habits are almost formed. This means that getting used to the alien demands and conditions of the baby is more difficult. In addition, not all parents allow themselves not to return to the service until that time. Therefore, children begin to visit the garden earlier in the year.
The second problem is the choice of institution. How smoothly the adaptation period goes will also depend on the caregiver. Before you get on the waiting list at a preschool institution, read the reviews and talk with the families whose children attend this kindergarten. Visit the institution and talk with educators and the head, see how children communicate and walk. Which teacher your child gets to is incredibly important.
Preparing for kindergarten
Start preparing for a visit to kindergarten should be in advance ofthe alleged first visit to unfamiliar conditions. Not all children communicate with strangers joy and is of interest. If your child is shy and avoids strangers and unfamiliar children, even the most professional teacher will not save the baby from stress.
What to do?
Gradually increase the baby's social circle. Go with him to friends and family, encourage conversations with peers at the playground, tell people you need to talk to, and who you don’t talk to, talk to them about the actions of others.
Teach a little person to communicate with people! Show how it is worth asking toys of the same age, how to ask permission from the children to play with them or invite another baby to play with them.
Teach your baby how to get to know his peers. If your baby is shy, start asking for the names of the children yourself. Over time, the baby will take with you an example and will start dating on their own.
Organize collective games. Suppose in the ball. Thus, you show the child that playing in the team is fun and entertaining.
Check in the kindergarten whether they have the opportunity to visit the child with their mother for a few hours a week.If there is, it is a wonderful opportunity to gradually adapt to new conditions.
Learn the daily routine of children in kindergarten and gradually teach the child to live according to such routine. Pay special attention to the afternoon nap. Many children refuse to obey the "quiet hour" in kindergarten, because they do not sleep at home during the day. If the baby flatly refuses to sleep, teach him to lie quietly this time.
Teach your child independent games! A kid who can play himself adapts faster in kindergarten and begins to communicate with others. Design for the child in story-role games. They will teach the child to communicate, introduce them to the outside world, and develop an emotional range.
Tell the child about the kindergarten in the form of a game. Explain that when mom and dad go to work, kids go to kindergarten. Tell us how children like them and how they have fun there. Clarify that the children in the garden need to eat and sleep, and every kid there has a cot and a locker. Think of a game in the "kindergarten." Let the toys of the child become “children”, and the baby a caring “teacher”.If you discuss the kindergarten all the time, the child will want to go there and adapt more quickly.
Ask the manager about the opportunity to visit a kindergarten with a child during a group walk. Let the child see how the children are walking and how the teacher communicates with them.
Develop a child's perseverance and concentration. For this, read to him tales and poems. Suppose that for a long time the child is not enough for a long time, but gradually increasing the time, you will achieve concentration of the baby.
Teach your child to self-hygiene. He will feel confident in someone else's situation, if he knows how to use the pot, wash his hands and put on his shoes.
Teach your child to eat without the help of adults, without being distracted by TV and other entertainment. If he comes into the garden without the skill of using a spoon, you risk leaving the child hungry. The teachers feed the kids, but there are a lot of guys, and the meal time is limited by the daily routine.
Strengthen the immunity of the baby. Wear it according to the weather and start hardening procedures.
How to facilitate the adaptation period?
Your emotional mood and attitude towards kindergarten plays an important role.If you feel guilty because you give a child to strangers, your baby will feel the same negative. Treat the kindergarten positively, this is the first independent stage in the life of the baby.
Discuss with the educator the habits of your child, the characteristics of the nature of the baby, how he prefers to spend his free time, what educational measures are taken in your family. Specify everything that you see fit. It will be easier for the teacher to work with your child and find an exceptional approach to it.
Talk to your caregiver about your kindergarten routine during the addictive period. He is selected individually. Some children are left to sleep in the garden after a few days, and someone visits the garden for months to dinner with continuous whims and tears. Habituation to a foreign environment occurs gradually.
Do not extend the time of parting with the child in front of the whole group in the morning. Tell the child firmly that he will stay here now, and you will pick him up after the walk (or when you plan). You can invent a “tradition” of care. Suppose you agree with the baby that you will wave your hand out of the window.
If the farewell to the mother is difficult for the child, it is possible for someone else (any family member) to go with the child to kindergarten. Equip your baby with a thing reminiscent of a mom. A wonderful option is to give him the "house key", without which no one can enter the apartment, which means you will definitely pick it up in the evening.
Do not argue with a child about kindergarten and employees of the institution from a negative point of view. On the contrary, praise him in the company of relatives and friends for the fact that he is such an adult and is alone in kindergarten all day without his mother.
What can not be done, or the main mistakes of mom and dad when adapting the baby
The family wants the child to get used to kindergarten rather and accept the changes in his life as calmly as possible. But it happens that parents make mistakes in their actions and themselves delay the moment when the period of adaptation to the kindergarten will be in the past. It is important to know the basic mistakes, so as not to harm the child.
The disappearance of the mother without warning. In the first visit to the kindergarten group, the child is interested in everything around. He probably didn’t have to stay for long without his mother, so the first day in the garden is calm, and the next day with tears and whims.The baby boldly moves away from his mother, enthusiastically studying something unknown, but in his understanding his mother awaits him nearby. What happens next? Mom is happy that the child is distracted and disappears without saying that she needs to go. It is not difficult to assume that the child feels when she discovers that his mother “left” him. Even if you warned a child a thousand times that he will be in the garden without parents, never leave “on the sly”. The child then lives with the conviction that the mother will throw him everywhere and becomes literally her “tail”. After such a “disappearance”, the kid may fall into hysterics at every mention of the kindergarten and the trip to the institution will have to be postponed indefinitely.
Invalid daily routine. Think about how the daily routine of the baby meets the established requirements of the preschool. If the baby is used to falling asleep at 23.00, the rise at 7.00 will be torture for him. What do children do when they want to sleep? Kids who are not accustomed to the garden regime at home can be seen immediately in the institution. They cry, irritated, capricious. The first days are important. It depends on how the baby feels at the first visits depends the process of adaptation.Do not be lazy to develop the habit of the child to the correct routine, and then he will come to the garden in high spirits, ready for interesting discoveries and acquaintances.
Fast charges in the morning. Wake up in advance so as not to rush the child and not panic yourself. Leisurely gathering, attention and gentle awakening - the pledge of a productive day and high spirits for the whole family. Come out of the house with the calculation of time, so as not to run in a hurry and have time to create a positive attitude for the child.
If your actions were correct, and after six months the adaptation period is still not left behind, most likely the problem is in the teacher or group. Change the institution or ask the manager to transfer the child to another group, and perhaps the problem will be solved.
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