Hidden diabetes: what is it, symptoms, tests during pregnancy

Hidden diabetes is a violation of the metabolism of carbohydrates, which is detected for the first time during pregnancy. The disease develops more slowly than type 1 diabetes. Sometimes it is mistakenly defined as type 2 diabetes. It is always a non-insulin-dependent form that develops in people with antibodies to the decarboxylase-glutamic acid.

During gestation, another endocrine organ is formed in the body - the placenta. It produces hormones (prolactin, progesterone and others) that reduce the susceptibility of the tissues of the mother's body to insulin. Antibodies to insulin receptors are being actively created, and the breakdown of hormones in the placenta occurs. This leads to increased metabolism of ketone bodies, glucose begins to be spent on the needs of the fetus.

Normally, the development of insulin resistance is the impetus for increasing blood glucose after a meal. Consumption of carbohydrates leads to slight hypoglycemia.With the prerequisites for the development of diabetes, the insular apparatus does not stand up. This leads to the formation of pathology.

Symptoms

Hidden diabetes can be assumed if there is:

  • feeling tired;
  • nebula in the head;
  • dizziness;
  • feeling hungry after eating;
  • inability to quench thirst;
  • frequent urination.

As the disease progresses, a person�s ability to produce insulin gradually decreases. This can lead to a sharp decline in vision and convulsions. Therefore, it is important to identify the signs at the earliest stage.

In the risk group, latent diabetes mellitus includes women:

  • overweight;
  • over 30 years old;
  • with burdened heredity;
  • with a dysfunctional obstetric history.

Often the problem occurs at 6-7 months of pregnancy. Diagnosis is often difficult due to asymptomatic leakage. Sometimes the latent form is found by chance during laboratory tests.

Diagnostics

When a pregnant woman gets registered, the level of glucose is determined. To do this, take venous blood. In healthy women, it ranges from 3.26-4.24 mmol / l. About diabetes, you can say, if the fasting indicator is higher than 5.5 - 6 mmol / l.

Additionally, a study on glycated hemoglobin is being conducted.The method allows you to set the status of the exchange for the last 2 months. Normally, the rate is 3-6%. With an increase of 8% and above, they speak about the development of diabetes.

Determining the presence of latent diabetes is achieved by studying the elevated levels of autoantibodies to the pancreatic profile. For this, an antibody test for glutamate decarboxylase is performed. They provide an opportunity to identify the hidden form of the disease, to predict the rate of progression of pathology.

The second test is a blood test for C-peptide. However, this study does not show the problem at an early stage.

Glucose Tolerance Test

The study is conducted three times:

  1. The sugar level is measured on an empty stomach. If its level is 5.1 mmol / l and above, the diagnosis is confirmed, the test is terminated.
  2. If the study continues, a pregnant woman drinks a glass of sweet water in five minutes.
  3. After 60 and 120 minutes. Samples are taken from the woman. If after the second test revealed latent diabetes, the study is terminated.

The study takes 3-4 hours. At this time, you can not eat, walk and stand. An hour after taking a liquid, glucose should be no less than 10 mmol / l, and after 2 hours it should be less than 8.5 and more than 7.8 mmol / l.

This test has contraindications:

  • individual glucose intolerance;
  • gastrointestinal tract diseases;
  • manifest diabetes.

The analysis allows you to start treatment on time, choose a diet. If, when registering, the level of glucose in the blood is normal, then the test is carried out once for 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. In identifying suspicions of the disease, the study is done earlier. In this case, a single positive result does not allow to make a diagnosis. Data is rechecked again.



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