What are the types of elevators

Type of elevator drive. Freight and passenger elevators


By type of drive, electric, hydraulic and pneumatic elevators are distinguished. Electric lift is a classic version with traction ropes and engine. The electric motor drives the winch. Hydraulic lift moves due to oil pressure. Its load capacity is greater than that of an electric one. Pneumatic lift moves by air pressure, without any cables and pistons. Movement contributes to the difference in pressure above and below the cab.
On the moved freight allocate passenger and freight elevators. Passenger elevators can be either for residential buildings, or for public or for industrial enterprises. They are designed for relatively low weight. Separately among the passenger can be distinguished hospital and invalid elevators. Hospital manages the elevator. The disabled are equipped with special devices for lifting and lowering in a wheelchair.

Load capacity, speed, control


The capacity of a regular freight elevator can reach 5,000 kg. There are also small ones, for freights no more than 300 kg. They are used in restaurants, libraries. Lifting people is prohibited. There are special passenger-and-freight elevators in which this is possible. In freight elevators can be a conductor to accompany the goods. There are also sidewalk elevators, the cabin of which goes out of the ground to the level of the sidewalk. Typically, these elevators are installed in warehouses, underground parking.
The speed of the cabin at the elevators is also different. There are low-speed elevators - up to 1 m / s, high-speed - up to 2 m / s, high-speed - up to 4 m / s, high-speed - faster than 4 m / s. The drive of the lifting mechanism is also divided: electric or hydraulic. In the first case, the drive from the electric motor, in the second - the drive in the form of a lifting cylinder. Hydraulic elevators are silent and smooth in movement. When the electricity is turned off, they have an emergency door opening.
By the drive of the doors, elevators with a manual drive are allocated - the doors are opened manually, with a semi-automatic - the doors are opened manually, and the doors are closed with the help of a door closer.Also the drive can be fully automatic and combined. According to the elevator management, there are: internal control from the cab, external control from the sites, mixed control.
There are elevators with a simple separate control - only one team is implemented. With collective management - several commands are executed as a program. For example, in residential buildings, passing stops are possible only during descent, in public buildings - when moving in both directions.


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