What does pneumonia look like in the picture?

Pneumonia on radiographs is characterized by the presence of certain signs that form due to a local decrease in the airiness of the lung tissue as a result of its infiltration. The compacted area usually has fuzzy contours. Radiological manifestations of focal pneumonia are areas of lumen tissue enlightenment of various shapes and sizes, signs of croupous, lobar, or total forms of the disease — areas of enlightenment that capture part of the lung lobe, the whole lobe, or both, respectively.
The type of infiltration of the lung tissue and the stage of the disease determine the X-ray picture of pneumonia. There are three main types of infiltration: alveolar or pleuropneumonic, focal or bronchopneumonic and interstitial.

Alveolar Infiltration Type


This infiltration is characteristic of lobar pneumonia or pleuropneumonia. This is an independent disease with the development of the inflammatory process in the alveolar tissue. Radiographic signs of pleuropneumonia depend on the stage of the disease.The initial stage is called the tide stage. At this time, diffusely decreases the transparency of the lung tissue without clear contours. This is due to the development of hyperemia in the area of ​​inflammation. Then comes the stage of hepatization, which is characterized by the appearance of a zone of infiltration of a homogeneous structure and medium intensity. Exudate appears in the alveoli and inflammation develops in the parenchyma. On the radiograph, this is manifested by an increase in lung density. The shadow of the infiltration site, adjacent to the interlobar pleura with a wide base, has a maximum intensity. The alveolar type of infiltration is characterized by the symptom of “air bronchogram”: the lumens of the air-containing bronchi are clearly visible against the background of the alveoli filled with exudate. The resolution stage is accompanied by a decrease in the size of infiltration, its severity, the appearance of heterogeneity and a gradual restoration of the airiness of the pulmonary parenchyma.

Focal type of infiltration


Focal pneumonia is a disease in which inflammation of the alveolar tissue of the lungs develops against the background of existing bronchitis.In case of a focal type of infiltration in the lungs, areas of consolidation of a heterogeneous structure appear, which consist of numerous polymorphic, large foci that have fuzzy contours and merge with each other. Lesions are usually located around the small bronchi. Infiltration extends over one segment and does not have subpleural localization. The lumens of the segmental bronchi with thickened walls and vessels with fuzzy contours are clearly visible on the compacted area. Localization of focal pneumonia is the lower lobes of the right lung in the apical and posterior basal segments.

Interstitial type of infiltration


This type of infiltration is characteristic of viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia with the localization of the pathological process in the interstitial lung tissue, namely in the walls of the alveoli. On the radiograph in the lungs are determined by several sections of infiltration, having a uniform structure and resembling frosted glass. Against the background of a compacted parenchyma, airways of the bronchi, elements of the pulmonary pattern, walls of the bronchi, interlobular partitions, and small vessels are easily detected.


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