What is a molecule?

Leonid Veselov
Leonid Veselov
July 26, 2012
What is a molecule?

If you still do not know what a molecule is, then this article is for you. Many years ago, people began to guess that each substance consists of individual small particles. As proved a little later, these particles are called atoms. As a rule, atoms can not exist separately, so they are combined into molecules. Both atoms and molecules are very small. For example, in the composition of a dust particle there is a huge number of atoms.

Despite the fact that substances are the most diverse, the number of atoms is still limited. Atoms are combined with each other in different ways, as a result of which the very atoms form the molecules of various substances that surround us. This gives us a complete answer to the question of what the molecule consists of.

You may also be interested in that smaller molecule. There is a definite answer to this question. The composition of the molecule may include two or more atoms that are linked by a covalent bond. It is the atom that is the smallest particle compared to the molecule.

Molecular properties

Consider the properties of the molecule on the example of a substance such as sugar. If you grind it into the smallest grains, it will still contain many identical sugar molecules. Each grain will save all the properties of a given substance. Even if the sugar is divided into individual molecules, for example, dissolving it in water, the substance will not disappear and will show its properties. This can be tested by trying to make the water turn sweet. Of course, if we continue crushing sugar further, destroying the molecules or taking several atoms from them, the substance will be destroyed. It is worth noting that the atoms will not disappear, but will become part of other molecules. Sugar itself as a substance will no longer exist and will turn into another substance.

Eternal substances do not happen. Just as there are no eternal molecules. However, atoms are considered practically eternal.

Although the molecules are very small in size, their structure can still be determined using various chemical and physical methods. Some substances exist in pure form. These are substances that contain molecules of the same type.If in the composition of the physical body there are different types of molecules, in this case we are dealing with a mixture of substances.

Today, the structure of the substance molecules is determined by diffraction methods. These methods include neutron diffraction, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. There is an electron paramagnetic method and a method of vibrational spectroscopy. Depending on the substance, its state, this or that method of analyzing molecules is determined.

Now you know what is called a molecule and what it consists of.

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