What is the conditional inhibition of reflexes of dogs
External conditioned inhibition of dog reflexes I. Pavlov accidentally discovered during experiments in an atmosphere of noises that oppressed conditioned reflexes. It has been shown that if noise is produced during the experiment, then an indicative reaction of behavior arises in dogs, which inhibits the conditioned reflex. The general scheme of this inhibition was presented as a depressing effect from the center of the orienting unconditioned reflex to the center of the conditioned reflex.
Similar cases of external inhibition of any processes of higher nervous activity are observed in dogs not only during experiments and training, but also in everyday life. It is called distraction. In the case when this phenomenon disappears, they talk about addiction to this factor. The biological meaning of external inhibition in a dog is that the inhibition of current activity eliminates the interference of the orienting reflex. If this does not happen, then the dog becomes accustomed to an external irritant.
All types of internal braking are subject to training. So, for example, if the extinction of the conditioned reflex is performed daily, then the development of extinctive inhibition will take less time each day. Finally, after some time, it will be sufficient to apply the conditioned stimulus without reinforcement only once, so that its subsequent application remains without a positive effect.
The next common feature of all types of inhibition is the presence of aftereffects. If a positive conditioned stimulus is applied after 20-30 seconds after the inhibitory presence, then it will cause a reduced response or quite cause it. This phenomenon is called sequential braking. Consecutive inhibition, for example, from differentiation irritation, can persist for ten minutes.
Each of the types of internal inhibition is summed up with repeated applications of the stimulus that causes them, which is revealed by the intensification of successive inhibition. If, for example, the differentiating stimulus is applied five times in succession, then a positive conditioned signal after it can cause a significantly reduced conditioned reflex or completely remain unanswered.
Any conditional inhibition of the reflexes of dogs is produced on the basis of unconditional inhibition. Proof of this is the nature of the dynamics of the formation of differential inhibition. Thus, in most cases, when the agent is first used as the negative signal, the dog reacts with an approximate reaction, as a result of which this signal does not cause a conditioned reflex. This is the first phase of differentiation, which is carried out at the expense of external inhibition, arising from the orienting reflex. Further, after several applications of the differentiating agent, the orienting reflex dies away and the second phase begins - the absence of differentiation. Finally, after a series of oppositions of positive and inhibitory stimuli, a third phase begins - differentiation. In some cases, the second phase may not appear due to the fact that the conditioned inhibition has already developed. On the basis of this fact and as a result of studying the effects of unconditional and conditional inhibition, it was hypothesized that both are identical in their physical and chemical bases, but differ in the principle of origin.
I. Pavlov believed that conditional inhibition arises on the basis of unconditional inhibition on the principle of temporary connection. According to this point of view, the impulses coming to the cerebral cortex from the receptors can interact with the excitation (then a positive conditioned reflex is formed) or with the inhibitory state (this will lead to the formation of a inhibitory, negative conditioned reflex). In the latter case, the nervous activity of the animal is directed, for example, not to the act of extracting food for a certain signal, but to suppress, inhibit this act on some other signal. Indeed, we know that the resulting inhibitory conditioned reflex has its own stimulus and persists for more or less long, as well as the positive conditioned reflex developed on the basis of unconditioned arousal.
Thus, due to the lack of information about inhibition of behavior, ideas about it are in the nature of hypotheses. Nevertheless, one should keep in mind the hypothesis that conditioned inhibition of behavior, like the beyond, develops as a protective phenomenon, which prevents the possibility of depletion of nerve cells.The idea of the protective and restorative role of conditional inhibition was developed in the works of L. Orbeli, P. Kupalov and E. Asratyan. It is recognized that inhibition and arousal is a single process. As a result of the interaction of inhibition and excitation, separate conditional and unconditional acts of behavior are carried out and nervous activity is ensured, and hence the corresponding behavior of the animal.
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